, The strategic importance of the Palatinate and its proximity to the Spanish Road drew in external powers; in August 1620, the Spanish occupied the Lower Palatinate. , Arguably, France gained more from the Thirty Years' War than any other power; by 1648, most of Richelieu's objectives had been achieved. The Thirty Years’ War profoundly altered Europe’s political landscape and social fabric. Thirty Years' War is a game designed by HQ and it covers one of the darkest ages of European history. Here, in the heartland of Europe, three denominations vied for dominance: Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism.  In May, a Bavarian army under Franz von Mercy destroyed a French detachment at Herbsthausen, but he was defeated and killed at Second Nördlingen in August. While it is not a comprehensive list of all skirmishes, conflicts, or battles that took place in the Thirty Years' War, we have tried to include as many military events and actions as possible. In May 1618, Protestant nobles led by Count Thurn met in Prague Castle with Ferdinand's two Catholic representatives, Vilem Slavata and Jaroslav Borzita. Hard pounding is gradually bringing AIDS under control. The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe. He did so with support from the Catholic League, despite strong opposition from Protestant members, as well as the Spanish. , Made over-confident by success, in March 1629 Ferdinand passed an Edict of Restitution, which required all lands taken from the Catholic church after 1555 to be returned. Ferdinand won after a five-year struggle. Appointed to rule the Duchy of Styria in 1595, within eighteen months he eliminated Protestantism in what was previously a stronghold of the Reformation. While less than 2% of the total French state budget, it made up over 25% of the Swedish, and allowed Gustavus to support an army of 36,000. Lack of a sense of 'shared community' resulted in atrocities such as the destruction of Magdeburg, while creating large numbers of refugees, who were extremely susceptible to sickness and hunger. Director: Karel Zeman | Stars: Petr Kostka, Emília Vásáryová, Miroslav Holub, Karel Effa.  Although suggested towns over-stated losses to avoid taxes, individual records show serious declines; from 1620 to 1650, the population of Munich fell from 22,000 to 17,000, that of Augsburg from 48,000 to 21,000. , Expectations of widespread support proved unrealistic; by the end of 1630, the only new Swedish ally was Magdeburg, which was besieged by Tilly. When Ferdinand was elected king of Bohemia in 1617, he gained control of its electoral vote; however, his conservative Catholicism made him unpopular with the largely Protestant Bohemian nobility, who were also concerned at the erosion of their rights. Leopold suffered 20,000 casualties, including 5,000 prisoners and 46 guns, compared to Swedish losses of 4,000 killed or wounded. The war originated in differences between German Protestants and Catholics, which were temporarily settled by the 1555 Peace of Augsburg but was gradually undermined by political and religious tensions. In the October 1619 Treaty of Munich, Ferdinand agreed to transfer the Palatinate's electoral vote to Bavaria and allow him to annex the Upper Palatinate. By the time he died in 1631, over 900 people from all levels of society had been executed. The Palatinate was clearly lost; in March, James instructed Vere to surrender Frankenthal, while Tilly's victory over Christian of Brunswick at Stadtlohn in August completed military operations. This allowed Bavaria, Brandenburg-Prussia, Saxony and others to pursue their own policies, while Sweden gained a permanent foothold in the Empire. The Thirty Years War was largely the war of the Counter-Reformation.  He won major victories at Breitenfeld in September 1631, then Rain in April 1632, where Tilly was killed. Their attribution by some to supernatural causes led to a series of Witch-hunts, beginning in Franconia in 1626 and quickly spreading to other parts of Germany, which were often exploited for political purposes. It also provided opportunities for external opponents of the Habsburgs, including the Ottoman Empire and Savoy. IT WAS not quite a … In May, a combined Franco-Swedish army destroyed the last major Imperial army at Zusmarshausen, while a second Swedish force besieged Prague. The process, or 'Congress' model, was adopted for negotiations at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1668, Nijmegen in 1678, and Ryswick in 1697; unlike the 19th century 'Congress' system, these were to end wars, rather than prevent them, so references to the 'balance of power' can be misleading. By the end of the war, the shape of Europe had been greatly changed.  Poor harvests throughout the 1630s and repeated plundering of the same areas led to widespread famine; contemporaries record people eating grass, or too weak to accept alms, while instances of cannibalism were common. Regardless of religion, most German princes refused to support him, and by early 1620, the Bohemian Revolt had been suppressed. This meant each of the 224 member states was either Lutheran, the most usual form of Protestantism, or Catholic, based on the choice made by their ruler. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and, when it ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the map of Europe had been irrevocably changed. There are four scenarios provided: the Full Campaign (14 turns), Early War (5 turns), Intervention (3 turns), and Apocalypse (5 turns). This resulted in a Gordian tangle of alliances as princes and prelates called in foreign powers to aid them. The Battle of Rocroi in 1643, was the first defeat of the Spanish army in over a century, and could be considered a turning point in the war. Delivering these commitments required his election as Emperor, which was not guaranteed; one alternative was Maximilian of Bavaria, who opposed the increase of Spanish influence in an area he considered his own, and tried to create a coalition with Saxony and the Palatinate to support his candidacy. – Also known as the War of the Triple Alliance Ten Years' War: 241,000+ 1868–1878 Spain vs. Cuba Cuba – Also known as the Great War Conquest of the Desert: 30,000–35,000 1870s–1884 Argentina vs. Mapuche people Patagonia Aceh War: 97,000–107,000 1873–1914 Kingdom of the Netherlands vs. Aceh Sultanate Indonesia  The death toll may have improved living standards for the survivors; one study shows wages in Germany increased by 40% in real terms between 1603 and 1652. List of every major Thirty Years' War battle, including photos, images, or maps of the most famous Thirty Years' War battles when available. Attempts to negotiate a peaceful solution failed as the conflict in Germany became part of the wider struggle between France and their Habsburg rivals in Spain and Austria. , Ferdinand reconfirmed Protestant religious freedoms when elected king of Bohemia in May 1617, but his record in Styria led to the suspicion he was only awaiting a chance to overturn them.  Gabriel Bethlen, Calvinist Prince of Transylvania, invaded Hungary with Ottoman support, although the Habsburgs persuaded them to avoid direct involvement, helped by the outbreak of hostilities with Poland in 1620, followed by the 1623 to 1639 war with Persia. On 24 October, Ferdinand finally signed peace treaties with France and Sweden; the Swedes retreated from Prague, but not before looting many valuable treasures, including the Codex Gigas, today preserved in Stockholm. , After Tilly's death, Ferdinand turned once again to Wallenstein; knowing Gustavus was over extended, he marched into Franconia and established himself at Fürth, threatening the Swedish supply chain. , Although religion remained an issue throughout the 17th century, it was the last major war in Continental Europe with religion as its primary driver; later such conflicts were either internal, such as the Camisards in South-Western France, or relatively minor like the 1712 Toggenburg War. Meanwhile the conflict widened, fueled by political ambitions of the various powers. Available instantly. The war ended with a series of treaties collectively called as “Treaty of Westphalia” (1648). Whilst the conflict took place mainly in the area of modern day Germany, it involved many of the great European powers at that time. , Once again, the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war failed to end. This seemed confirmed when Tilly's Catholic League army occupied Halberstadt in early 1625.  In these battles, Gustavus used, among other things, the well-trained Finnish light cavalrymen Hakkapeliitta, which were excelled in sudden and savage attacks, raiding and reconnaissance. While both were primarily designed to support the dynastic ambitions of their leaders, they combined with events like the 1609 to 1614 War of the Jülich Succession to increase tensions throughout the Empire. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history.. Denmark was a Lutheran/Protestant country at the time of the 30 Years' War. Whilst the conflict took place mainly in the area of modern day Germany, it involved many of the great European powers at that time. Chronic financial weakness meant prior to 1619 the Austrian Habsburgs had no standing army of any size, leaving them dependent on Maximilian and their Spanish relatives for money and men. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe , and, when it ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the map of Europe had been irrevocably changed. , Defeat at Nördlingen threatened Sweden's participation, leading Richelieu to intervene directly. Thirty Years War is a new game designed by developer HQ covering one of the darkest ages of European history. This second phase ended with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia. The crisis had a constitutional and political as well as a religious dimension. With the exception of the 1639 to 1642 Piedmontese Civil War, this secured the French position in Northern Italy for the next twenty years.  Despite the devastation inflicted on their territories by Imperial soldiers, both Saxony and Brandenburg had their own ambitions in Pomerania, which clashed with those of Gustavus; previous experience also showed inviting external powers into the Empire was easier than getting them to leave.  Some historians who view the war primarily as an international conflict argue this marks the beginning of the conflict, since Spain and Austria backed the Catholic candidate, France and the Dutch Republic the Protestant. • La vida y hechos de Estebanillo González, hombre de buen humor, compuesta por él mismo (Antwerp, 1646): The last of the great Spanish Golden Age picaresque novels, this is set against the background of the Thirty Years' War. Overall, the struggle was between the Holy Roman Empire, which was Roman Catholic and Habsburg, and a network of Protestant towns and principalities that relied on the chief anti-Catholic powers of Sweden and the United Netherlands, which had at last thrown off the yoke of Spain after a struggle lasting 80 years. The Thirty Years' War (German: Dreißigjähriger Krieg, pronounced [ˈdʁaɪ̯sɪçˌjɛːʁɪɡɐ kʁiːk] (listen)) was a conflict primarily fought in Central Europe from 1618 to 1648.  Well into the 19th century, the leading cause of mortality even for soldiers was disease; of an estimated 600,000 military deaths between 1618 and 1648, only 200,000 were killed in combat. 1 The Prague Defenestration 2 The Battle of White Mountain 3 The Danish War 4 The Swedish War 5 The Franco-Swedish Phase This war's roots go back to the Reformation and the spread of … It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, resulting in millions of casualties. They offered the Crown to the Protestant Frederick V of the Palatinate, who accepted.  While the Thirty Years War ranks as one of the worst of these events, precise numbers are disputed; 19th century nationalists often increased them to illustrate the dangers of a divided Germany. , However, how far these witch-hunts can be seen as reflecting a breakdown in society is debated, since many took place in areas relatively untouched by the war.  In 2012, she and other victims were officially exonerated by the Cologne City Council. At the same time, the Swedes under Johan Banér marched into Brandenburg; victory at Wittstock on 4 October 1636 regained most of the ground lost after Nördlingen. , Spanish involvement inevitably drew in the Dutch, and potentially France, although the strongly Catholic Louis XIII faced his own Protestant rebels at home and refused to support them elsewhere. See more. The Danes were comprehensively beaten at Lutter in August, and Mansfeld's army dissolved following his death in November. This threatened both Lutherans and Calvinists, paralysed the Diet and removed the perception of Imperial neutrality.  A scathing condemnation of the trials, Cautio Criminalis, was written by professor and poet Friedrich Spee, himself a Jesuit and former "witch confessor". Intended as the basis of a wider coalition against Ferdinand, France, Sweden, Savoy and the Republic of Venice were also invited to join, but it was overtaken by events. , In May 1628, his deputy von Arnim besieged Stralsund, the only port with large enough shipbuilding facilities, but this brought Sweden into the war. It includes factors unrelated to death or disease, such as permanent migration to areas outside the Empire, or lower birthrates, a less obvious impact of extended warfare. 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